A very common subject of phone calls received at veterinary clinics is a pet that is “scooting”. A common misconception is that it has worms, but often the cause is anal glands that need expressing. Most people are not even aware that pets have anal glands and what they do.
Purpose & Location
Anal glands are small sacs located just inside the rectum with ducts that exit at the anus. Also called the “scent glands”, they produce a foul-smelling, yellow to brown colored, liquid substance used for marking. The contents are excreted with the pressure of a normal, firm bowel movement. Most pets do not have issues expressing the material on their own. However, due to loose stools, allergies, diet, or differing anatomy, some patients need help expressing the glands. Anal glands can become impacted, infected, and can abscess. Also, leaks can occur when pets are either very relaxed or scared/startled.
Some symptoms are very noticeable, while others are more subtle. Pet’s may exhibit one or more of the following symptoms:
Excessive licking at rear end
Sudden need to sit down
The glands will need to be expressed manually if the patient cannot express them naturally. Though this can be done from the outside, it is much more successful to express them internally. It is highly recommended that a veterinary professional express them, but with proper training and patient cooperation a client can do them at home. If any abnormalities are noticed, please seek veterinary care.
Abscessed anal glands may need oral antibiotics, and in severe cases may need to be infused with liquid antibiotics. Most patients will need to be sedated for this procedure. Tumors can also develop in or around the anal glands, which is a good reason to have them expressed by a veterinary professional.
There are multiple products on the market that claim to alleviate anal gland issues. The key ingredient in all of them is fiber. Fiber helps to keeps pet’s gastrointestinal system regular, which helps to naturally express the glands. A low-cost home remedy would be to add a small amount of canned pumpkin (not pumpkin pie filling) to your pet’s diet.
For patients with known anal glands issues, expressing them regularly can prevent them from becoming impacted and abscessing. All patients are different, but it is common to need expressing monthly. If your pet is having anal gland issues, give us a call at 444-5797 to schedule an appointment.
April is National Pet First Aid Awareness Month. We have created a list of items to keep at home or in your field first aid kit.
Having the correct materials and knowing how to use them can make a big difference in wound management. A pressure wrap can help to control or minimize bleeding. Bandaging can be helpful in protecting a wound from contamination as well as from the patient licking it. Bandages should be removed if they become too tight or swelling is observed, or if they become dirty or wet.
A non-adhesive pad (such as a Telfa pad) should be placed over the wound itself, then a stretch bandage (Example: Vetrap®) material can be used to keep it in place. When bandaging an extremity, start at the bottom and work your way up to avoid constriction. A tape can be used to reinforce the ends. When actual bandage materials are unavailable, items such as lady’s maxi pads and a little duct tape may suffice in an emergency.
A dog and cat’s normal rectal temperature is about 99-103 degrees Fahrenheit. An increased temp is hyperthermia and decreased is hypothermia. Warming or cooling of the patient should start immediately if able. The patient’s temperature can be helpful information when calling your veterinarian and can aid in diagnosis.
Aspirin is an over-the-counter medication that can be given to dogs that have a sprain/strain or are sore after hunting. Call your veterinarian for dosing. Long term use of Aspirin may cause stomach upset or ulcers. Never use Aspirin in conjunction with steroids (Prednisone) or other pain meds. Aspirin should not be given to cats. Prescription anti-inflammatory medications, such as Vetprofen/Carprofen or Rimadyl, are more effective but must be prescribed by your veterinarian.
NEVER give pets Ibuprofen (Advil®), Acetaminophen (Tylenol®), or Naproxen (Aleve®).
Benadryl® (Diphenhydramine) is an over-the-counter antihistamine frequently used for symptoms related to allergies including hives, facial swelling, rashes, etc. It is usually found in 25 mg tablet or capsule form at most pharmacies, but for dogs under 12 pounds, the children’s liquid may be easier to dose. Contact your veterinarian for dosing.
Nail Trimmer & Styptic Powder
Having your own nail trimmer at home can come in handy for broken nails. Styptic powder (Kwik Stop®) is a product that helps stop bleeding when nails are clipped too short. Baby powder, corn starch, or baking flour can be used in place of styptic powder but are less effective. Styptic powder should not be used on large or deep wounds.
A hemostat is a practical tool to include in a first aid kit. It can aid in removing porcupine quills, slivers, weed seeds, etc. In a pinch, a needle-nose plier can stand in for a hemostat. Hemostats can be purchased in the fishing department or at any bait & tackle store.
Helpful tip: Do not cut porcupine quills off before removing. Pull the quills straight out with slow, steady pressure.
A pair of bandage or athletic scissors can make removing bandages much easier. Different from regular scissors, they have a protective edge that shields the patient from the sharp blades of the scissors. They can also be used in case a collar or hunting vest gets caught and needs to be cut off.
An ophthalmic saline solution can be used to flush debris out of eyes. This can be useful to remove weed seeds, pollen, and other eye irritants. With any eye injury, a veterinarian should examine the eye promptly for corneal scratches or stuck foreign material. Do not use Visine® or any other contact solution.
Even the nicest pets may bite when they are fearful or painful. A properly fitting muzzle helps protect you from getting bit, but please still use caution and firm restraint. Muzzles are also helpful in distracting your pet while performing procedures.
E-collar vs Clothing
A pet can do more harm than good when licking or chewing at a wound, abrasion, lump, etc. Protecting the affected area from the pet can be just as important as protecting it from the elements. Having an E-collar available can be a great advantage. In place of an E-collar, a T-shirt can be worn by your pet to prevent it from licking or scratching a wound on its chest or abdomen. A sock or booty on the foot can prevent the pet from using that paw to scratch with or prevent them from getting to a wound on the foot.
Hydrogen peroxide has multiple uses. It can be used to rinse debris out of a wound, though it can be irritating. Peroxide can be used orally to induce vomiting if your pet ingests a toxin or foreign body. Consult your veterinarian promptly if your pet has ingested a toxin or foreign body. Peroxide is also an ingredient in the home remedy for a “skunk bath” (peroxide, baking soda, dish soap).
A dilute Betadine or Iodine solution is useful when cleaning and flushing out wounds. It has antibacterial properties and is less irritating than peroxide.
Dogs do not sweat from their body like we do; they only sweat through their paw pads. Isopropyl or rubbing alcohol can be applied to the pet’s paws when overheated. As it evaporates, the alcohol pulls heat away from the body, mimicking the effects of sweating.
Carefully trimming the hair around injuries can help you assess how extensive it is. Letting air reach certain wounds can allow them to heal quicker. Trimming matted fur can prevent a hidden infection underneath. Please do not use scissors to trim mats.
Your pet’s annual physical is a great time to discuss with your veterinarian which items would be more important for your pet. If you have any questions on specific products, please bring them along to your appointment. Give us a call at (218)444-5797 to schedule an appointment.
There are so many different flea & tick products on the market currently with a wide variety of active ingredients. Some would assume that if they are marketed for pets, they would be safe for all pets. This is not necessarily true. Cats are much more sensitive than dogs and can have severe reactions to canine flea & tick products. Patients with chronic medical conditions, such as seizures, can also respond differently to medications.
Store Brand vs Prescription
There are numerous benefits of using prescription flea & tick prevention from your veterinarian. Most prescription medications are more effective than over-the-counter treatments. Your pet’s veterinarian can recommend the right product based on their lifestyle and medical conditions. When you purchase through your veterinarian, the product is recorded in your pet’s medical records. Having accurate record of what was administered and when is valuable since most companies offer guarantees on their products. Also, drug companies often offer better rebates when buying through a veterinarian.
Unfortunately, when buying products through untrusted online sources, consumers risk receiving counterfeit products. The counterfeit products have little to none of the desired effect, which can leave your pet exposed to serious diseases. When shopping online, be sure to purchase only from trusted sources and inspect the product closely upon arrival.
Topical medications & collars are popular amongst flea & tick products. Some contain Permethrins, Organophosphates, or Amitraz as the active ingredient. All of these are extremely toxic to cats. Any medication containing permethrins should never be applied to cats. Also, cats should be kept away from dogs who have been treated for at least 72 hours to avoid accidental contact. Exposure can affect a cat’s nervous system and cause severe illness.
Tremors, shaking, or twitching
Ataxic- uncoordinated, acting “drunk”
Hypersensitive to touch
If left untreated, can results in death
Correct Dosing & Route of Administration
When used inappropriately, any medication can be toxic to the patient. Most products are dosed based on the patient’s weight. Pets who inadvertently ingest a topical medication or collar can become extremely ill. Toxicity can affect the nervous system, gastrointestinal system, and/or cardiac function with symptoms including:
Ataxic- uncoordinated, acting “drunk”
Slow heart rate
Low or high blood pressure
Some prefer a more natural approach to flea & tick prevention. Although not nearly as effective, holistic remedies can work for pets with minimal exposure. There are products available that have peppermint, lemongrass, cedarwood, and other essential oils as their main ingredient which claim to repel mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks. Please be aware that some oils, for example Tea Tree Oil, can also be toxic to pets. Read more about toxic oils on our blog “Essential Oils & Diffusers”.
Here is a list of key points to take away from this blog.
Never use dog products on cats.
Use products only as directed on the label.
Monitor your pets after use.
Report any adverse reactions to the company.
Use the appropriate dose for your pet’s weight.
Consult a veterinarian before product use in pets with chronic medical conditions.
Most prescription medications are more effective than over-the-counter treatments.
If your pet is having a reaction to a flea & tick medication:
If the product is a collar, remove it immediately.
As we continue to develop wild territory into human habitat, it is no wonder that instances of confrontation with predators are on the rise. Predators have become more accustomed to living in close proximity to humans which can be dangerous for both parties. Spring is the time of year we see an increase in attacks by coyotes and wolves on domestic pets. January through April is breeding and whelping season for these predators. They tend to be more aggressive, defensive, territorial and hungry. They aren’t picky when it comes to their prey. Fluffy bunny vs fluffy Pomeranian, squirrel or Shih Tzu; food is food.
Bears can also be dangerous this time of year. They are waking up from winter hibernation and emerging from their dens. They can be groggy, grumpy, and hungry. A dog is no match for the large, powerful claws of a bear. Given the bear’s disoriented, post-hibernation state, they may not run away but rather stand their ground. Mama bears may also have cubs to protect; never come between a mama and her cub.
Here are some tips on how to protect your pet from predator attacks:
Monitor pets when they are outside; do not leave them outside by themselves. Keep pets on a leash when walking, especially in wooded areas. Bring outdoor cats in at night. Avoid the twilight hours since predators are more active at these times. Know the area you are walking in. Check for sign such as tracks or scat.
The need for protective gear is an unfortunate reality for some situations. If you search the internet you will find multiple products available.
Kevlar neck collar with spikes
Puncture resistant Kevlar vest
Having a fenced in yard can protect your pet from many dangers. Unfortunately, predators can be very determined when hungry and will climb or dig their way in. It is recommended that fences be at least 6 foot tall, buried 18 inches in the ground, and even have rollers at top.
Predators often attack in the dark. Keeping your yard well-lit can help deter predators from getting too close. Motion detecting lights are helpful to scare off unsuspecting wildlife.
Eliminate all sources of food. Do not feed deer, squirrels, and rabbits. Attracting the prey will attract the predators. Remove all garbage or keep it in animal proof containers. Cover compost piles. Do not leave out dog or cat food. Clean your grill. Remove any roadkill near your property. Remove excess fruit from fruit trees.
Remove their hiding spots by keeping your yard clean, trees and shrubs trimmed, and having an obvious barrier from woods to lawn. Cleaning up your yard and removing the pet feces will reduce the scent that can attract predators.
Females in heat
Females are especially at risk during their heat cycle. They emit scent and pheromones that draw willing males for miles. Be sure to keep a watchful eye during this time. If not planning to breed, have the female spayed to eliminate the heat cycle.
There has been much debate in the use of bells on hunting dogs. Some hunters believe that it deters predators while others argue that it acts as a “dinner bell” attracting them. Use whistles, horns, or other non-natural noise makers to let predators know that humans and not wild canines are present.
Other Important Things to Note:
Vaccines- Keep pets up to date on vaccines. Wild animals carry preventable diseases such as Rabies, Distemper, Parvo, and Leptospirosis.
Don’t Run- It is important that you do not try to run away. This activates the predator instinct to chase. Instead, back away slowly, yell or make loud noises, wave your arms, and throw things at it.
Spread the Word- Share sightings and information with your friends & neighbors so they can be vigilant for their own pets and follow the deterrent recommendations as well.
DNR- Report nuisance or strange acting animals to the Department of Natural Resources. They are responsible for keeping track of the level of conflict and managing the species. They use the data to create or change laws and regulations regarding hunting and trapping.
DNR website statement on Coyotes:
The DNR does not trap, shoot, or relocate coyotes; it is the responsibility of the landowner.
Wolves in Minnesota can only be killed in defense of human life. Only agents of the government are authorized to take wolves if pets or livestock are threatened, attacked or killed. Protect evidence and report depredation incidents to a DNR or conservation officer.
At your dog’s annual exam, the veterinary staff will discuss which vaccines and tests your pet should receive. One of the options we offer is the Idexx 4Dx test which screens for heartworm, Lyme, Ehrlichiosis, and Anaplasmosis. To help make your decision easier, here are some answers to frequently asked questions regarding the test.
What’s involved and how does the test work?
Just a few drops of blood are needed to run this test. It takes about 10 minutes to get results. The test detects antibodies in the patient’s blood to tick diseases. Antibodies are the immune system’s response to the presence of antigens, which are anything foreign to the body including diseases. A positive result on the test means the patient has been exposed to the tick disease, not necessarily that the patient currently has the disease. Further testing may be necessary to determine if the patient needs treatment. Each patient’s immune system is unique, meaning the amount of time the antibodies are present can vary.
For the heartworm part of the test, the antigens are what is detected. A positive result for heartworm then means the patient currently has a heartworm infection. More testing is required to determine the severity of the infection and the treatment needed.
Why run a 4dx test yearly?
Most companies that make Lyme vaccines, heartworm preventives, and flea/tick preventives have guarantees associated with their products. For example, if your pet becomes infected with Lyme disease while using their product or after being fully vaccinated, they will cover the cost of testing and treatment. There are requirements to qualify for the coverage, including proof that the patient was negative before starting the product or getting the vaccine. Also, having a negative test as a base line to compare to when a patient is ill can help determine the diagnostics needed as well as the course of treatment. For both reasons, yearly testing can be financially beneficial to clients.
My dog has already been positive, should I still test?
If your pet has tested positive for a tick disease in the past, they may continue to test positive for a period of time due to residual antibodies. That period of time varies depending on the disease and your pet’s immune response. It will be helpful to know when the patient is negative, meaning the residual antibodies are gone. The next time the patient tests positive, it will be clear that it is a new infection.
There are more specific tests that can measure the number of antigens in the patient. For example, a Lyme C6 gives you a quantitative number which determines whether the patient is fighting a current infection vs presence of residual antibodies.
Additionally, if they were positive for one disease it is still useful to test for the other three diseases. Given the high density of ticks in our area, we see patients with concurrent infections of more than one tick disease. The tick diseases also share some symptoms, so the test will determine which one the patient is fighting.
My pet is already on heartworm or flea & tick meds, why do I need to test?
Unfortunately, no product has 100% efficacy. There is still a chance, though a very small one, that your pet could contract a tick disease while on tick preventives or heartworm disease on heartworm preventives. Also, if your pet travels with you to the southern United States, it may be exposed to a species of heartworm that is resistant to an active ingredient in some heartworm preventives. Therefore, it is best practice to test even if your pet is on year-round prevention.
If you have any questions, the staff at Northern Veterinary Clinic is here to answer them. Your pet’s annual exam is a perfect time to address any issues and concerns. Give us a call at 444-5797 to schedule an appointment.
In veterinary medicine we see many different eye conditions. Here is a list with a summary of what each one involves.
A scratch on the cornea is commonly referred to as a corneal ulcer. There are numerous causes from cat scratches, foreign items stuck under the third eyelid, to being hit or poked in the eye with an object. To determine if the cornea is scratched, we numb the eye with Proparacaine, then add fluorescein stain to the eye. A defect in the cornea will collect the stain and glow green making it easier to locate. A minor ulcer can be healed with antibiotic eye drops. More severe cases may need harvest serum which is derived from the patients own blood. The cells in the serum help to heal the cornea faster. A grid keratotomy, a procedure to remove inappropriately healing corneal tissue to allow it to heal properly, may also be needed. Ulcers tend to develop and worsen quickly and should be addressed promptly.
“Cherry Eye” is a term used for a prolapsed third eyelid or nictitating membrane. The third eyelid is located on the inner corner of each eye. It serves as an additional layer of protection and the accompanying gland provides about 50% of the eye’s lubrication. Mild cases are characterized by small, pink tissue that comes and goes occasionally while severe cases may cover a large portion of the eye consistently. Treatment usually requires surgical repair. If the gland is damaged beyond repair it will need to be removed, which can lead it a condition called “dry eye”.
Entropion & Ectropion
Entropion refers to a defect in the eyelid where it is turned inward, causing the hair and lashes to rub against the eyeball. Patients with this condition can often have non-healing corneal ulcers given the constant irritation. Ectropion is the opposite condition where the eyelid is turned outward causing a gap between the eyeball and eyelid. Patients can easily collect foreign objects in this gap or get the eyelid caught on things (barbwire, toenails, etc). Both conditions require surgical repair.
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), commonly referred to as “Dry Eye”, is an inflammatory condition that causes inadequate tear production. Tears are important to lubricate the eyes and flush away debris. Some causes include immune diseases, canine distemper, hypothyroidism, or side effects of medications. Treatment includes lubricating the eyes and addressing the underlying cause. If left untreated the irritation can lead to painful, non-healing ulcers.
Nuclear sclerosis refers to the condition where the lens inside the eye hardens. The lens is supposed to be clear allowing light in. When hardened is become cloudy or opaque. The pet is not blind, but has slightly diminished site, especially in low light. There is no treatment or prevention for this condition.
A cataract is an opacity or imperfection of the lens that obscures vision. It can vary from a small portion to the entire lens. The condition can be hereditary or brought on by diseases such as diabetes or overexposure to UV light. Drops can be prescribed to delay progression and surgery can be done to replace the lens.
The eyeball is filled with fluid called aqueous humor. This nutrient and oxygen rich fluid supports the eye structures. The intra-ocular pressure (IOP) remains constant if the production and drainage are equal. If the drainage is inadequate, the excess fluid causes the IOP to increase, this condition is called Glaucoma. Inflammation, dislocation or damage of the lens, tumors, or intra-ocular bleeding can be causes. Increased pressure causes damage to the structures of the eye. Treatment of the underlying condition is key as well as pain control and medications that decrease fluid production and promote drainage. Severe cases may require the eye to be removed, also called enucleation.
If you pet is having eye issues, please call us at 444-5797 to schedule an appointment.